"Navajo children are taught in a foreign language; they are taught concepts which are foreign; they are taught values which are foreign; they are taught lifestyles which are foreign; and they are taught by human models which are foreign. The intention behind this kind of schooling is to mold the Navajo child (through speech, action, thought) to be like members of the predominant Anglo- Saxon mainstream culture. The apparent assumption apparently being that people of other ethnic groups cannot be human unless they speak English, and behave according to the values of a capitalistic society based on competition and achievement. The children grow up in these schools with a sense of: (1) Confusion regarding the values, attitudes and behavior taught at home. (2) Loss of self-identity and pride concerning their selfhood - their Navajo- ness. (3) Failure in classroom learning activities. (4) Loss of their own NavaJo language development and loss of in- depth knowledge of their own Navajo culture." Pfeiffer Bradley, Anita. 1975. Designing a Bilingual Curriculum, in Troike, R. & N. Modiano (eds.), Proceedings of the First InterAmerican Conference on Bilingual Edacation. Arlington, Va.: CAL.

"I started writing in the Gikuyu language in 1977 after 17 years of involvement in Afro- Eurpean literature, in my case Afro- English literature. Wherever I have gone, particularly in Europe, I have often been confronted with the question: why are you now writing in Gikuyu? why do you now write in an African language? In some acedemic quarters I have been confronted with the rebuke: why have you abandoned us? It was almost, as if, in choosing to write in Gikuyu, I was doing something abnormal. But Gikuyu is my mothertongue. The very fact that the dictates of common sense in the literary practice of other cultures are being questioned in the case of an Africen writer is a measure of how far imperialism has distorted the view of African realities. It has turned reality upside down: the abnormal is viewed as the normality and the normality is viewed as abnormal. I believe that my writing in the Gikuyu language, a Kenyan language, an African language, is part and parcel of the anti- imperialist struggle of Kenyan and African peoples. In schools and universities our Kenyan languages - that is the languages of the many nationalities which make up Kenya - were associated with negative qualities of backwardness, underdevelopment, humiliation, and punishment. I do not want to see Kenyan children growing up in that imperialist- imposed tradition of contempt for the tools of communication developed by their communities and their history. I want them to transcend colonial alienation." Ngugi Wa Thiong'o. 1985. The language of African literature. New Left Review. April- June, 109- 127.

Modern Varieties of English

Varieties on a continuum between less educated and well educated most local and international stigmatized and ridiculed Varieties that are ethnically distinctive and may develop a new standard and have norms of their own, e.g. Singapore English, West African English English as a Second Language, as a lingua franca due to economic incentives and cultural affiliation. Contrast language that symbolizes the colonial/nationhood, dominance/independence, exploitation/development


English as a language of wider communication English as the language of trendy culture English replacing other languages English changing other languages English changing itself