Verbs and Auxiliaries

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Primary and auxiliary verbs 15

3 Verbs and auxiliaries

There are three major types of verbs:
1 FULL (or lexical verbs) - eg: believe, like, say, want ...
Almost all verbs are in this category, except for
2 PRIMARY verbs - be, do and have
3 MODAL auxiliaries - can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would


Exercise 8: Full verbs: functions of the base form [ORG 7.2.1]

The BASE form of the verb is the uninflected form of a full or primary verb, the form that comes first in a dictionary (eg: believe, like, be, do. But NOT believes, liked, being, done).

The base is used in five different ways:

I often come here. [finite present tense (pres)]
Come at once! [imperative (imp)]
They demanded that I come to their office. [subjunctive (subj)]
They wanted me to come. [infinitive with to (to-infin)]
I can come tomorrow. [infinitive without to (bare infin)]

Find the base forms in the following, and decide which way each one is being used.


Example: When you have nothing to say, say nothing. Who said that? Answer: have (pres) to say (to infin) say (imp). [But not said, because said is not a base form]

1 Listen carefully.
2 If you won't listen, I'm going.
3 My parents always insisted that I listen to what they said.
4 But why am I supposed to listen?
5 Actually I always listen anyway.
6 If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen. [Harry S Truman, 1884-1972, US president]
7 Who was he telling to get out of the kitchen, and why?
8 It has nothing to do with kitchens. He was suggesting to people who could not work under pressure that they get out and find other work.
9 Oh l get it!
10 I don't know whether anyone actually did get out as a result.

Exercise 9: -ed form:regular and irregular[ORG 7.2.5, 7.5, 7.8]

In regular verbs, the past tense and the past participle both end in -ed:
I looked [past], I have looked [past participle]

So the label '-ed form' is often used for both these parts of the verb, even with irregular verbs: He saw,

Complete the following passage using -ed forms of these regular and irregular verbs:


descend - disappear - drop - give - lead - perch - populate - rise - round - say - set - stand - wrap


Example: 'That's right,' SAID the doctor. 'Look after your mother.'

My mother ( I ) ..................... me directions how to reach the dispensary, and I (2) ............... off with a bottle (3) ....................... in brown paper under my arm. The road (4) ........................ uphill, through a thickly (5 ) ................................ poor locality, as far as the barracks, which was (6) ............................ on the very top of the hilI, over the city, and then (7)....................... , between high walls, till it suddenly almost (8) .................................... in a stony path, ......... that (9) .............................. steeply, steeply, to the valley of the little river, .................................. and the opposite hillside ........(10) .......................to the gently (11) .................... top, on which ( 12) the purple sandstone tower of the cathedral.


Exercise 10: -ed form: functions [ORG]

The finite 'past' -ed form is used for:

Simple past tense: I looked. We saw.

The non-finite -ed participle is used for:

Perfect: I have looked. They had seen it. Passive: You were seen. Participle clause: Seen from a distance, it is lovely.

Decide what function the -ed forms had in exercise 9, and mark them past tense (past). or non-finite participle:

I gave [past]
2
3


]. Exercise 11: -s form: pronunciation and spelling [ORG 7.2.2]

The 3rd person singular of the simple present tense (the -s form) is pronounced in three different ways, according to the sound that it follows: waits /s/ weighs /z/ wishes /iz/

Complete the following with the -s form of the verbs indicated. Then arrange the verbs into three lists according to the way the endings are pronounced.

Example:
1 Bad money DRIVES out good. (drive)
/z/- in the weighs list.
2 Absence ........................... the heart grow fonder. (make)
3 It's the early bird that ......................... the worm. (catch)
4 Travel ................................ the mind. (broaden)
5 Charity ..............................at home. (begin)
6 Tomorrow never .............................(come)
7 He who ................................. is lost. (hesitate)
8 It .................................. belief, but it's true. (pass)
9 It .............................. to advertise. (pay)
10 This powder............................... whiter than white. (wash)
I I History .............................. itself. (repeat)
12 An apple a day .............................. the doctor away. (keep)
13 Power ................................. to corrupt, (tend)
14 and absolute power ............................ absolutely. (corrupt)


Exercise 12: Past form: regular and irregular [ORG 7.8]

Complete the following with past tenses of the verbs given. My mother (1 watch) WATCHED me from the kitchen doorway and I could imagine her keen eyes piercing the cloth of my blazer to where the watch (2 rest)........................ guiltily in my pocket.

'Are you going on your bike, then, Will?'

I(3 say) ................ 'Yes, Mother,' and, feeling uncomfortable under that direct gaze, (4 begin) ....................... to wheel the bike across the yard.

'I (5 think) ................. you (6 say) .......................... it (7 need) mending or something before you (8 ride)..................... it again'?'

'It's only a little thing,' I(9 tell) .............. her.<'lt'll be all right.'

I (10 wave) ....................... goodbye and (I I pedal) ..................... out into the street while she (12 watch) ...................................... me, a little doubtfully, I (13 think) ....................... .
Once out of sight of the house I (14 put) .......................... all my strength on the pedals and (15 ride) .................................... like the wind. My grandfather's house (16 be)................... in one of the older parts of the town and my way (17 lead) ....................... through a maze of cobbled streets between long rows of houses. I ( 18 keep) ....................................... up my speed, excitement coursing through me as I (19 think) ............... of the watch and (20 revel) .................... in my hatred of Crawley. Then from an entry between two terraces of houses a mongrel puppy (21 dart).................... into the street. I (22 pull) ............................. at my back brake. The cable (23 snap) .................... with a click - that was what I had (24 intend) ......................... to fix. I(25 jam) ........................ on the front brake with the puppy cowering foolishly in my path. The bike (26 jar) .................... to a standstill, the back end swinging as though (27 catapult) ..................... over the pivot of the stationary front wheel and 1(28 go) ............... over the handlebars.

Exercise 13: -ed form: pronunciation [ORG 7.5.27.5.2]

The regular red form is pronounced in three different ways according to the sound it follows: wished /t/ weighed/ /d/ waited /id/


Go through all the regular -ed forms in Exercise 12 and put them in three lists according to their pronunciation:


Example (1) watched - like wished/t/

Exercise 14: Spelling rules and exceptions [ORG 7.5.17.4, 7.5]

Complete the following, using -ed or -ing forms of these verbs:


develop - dye - lie - mislay - occur - offer - panic - repay - sue - whinge

It never ( I ) OCCURRED to me that he was (2) .............. ,or I wouldn't have (3) ............... to lend him the money in the first place. He says he (4) ................... my letter, and that's why he hasn't yet (5) .................... me. He really started (6) ............... when I said I'd take him to court. But I am seriously thinking of (7) ............... him, because I'm fed up with his (8) .................. on about how unkind I am and how unfair life is. He's a (9) .................. in-the-wool scrounger if you ask me, with an over- (10) ................... sense of grievance.

Exercise 15: irregular past participles [ORG 7.8]

Newspaper headlines often use present tenses to report the latest news - it sounds more immediate. Imagine these headlines are in today's paper, and tell someone what has been happening. Use present perfect tenses, making any minor grammatical changes that may be necessary.


Example: Art thieves steal Gainsborough. Answer: Art thieves have stolen a (painting by) Gainsborough.


1 Rioting spreads to city centre.

2 Dream comes true for octogenarian.

3 Boy sleeps through pit ordeal.

4 Tottenham lose out in a different ball game.

5 Thousands strike in dock unrest.

6 Postal charges rise again.

7 Madman shoots 5.

8 MP fights off death threat from mugger.

9 P&O profits fall 22 per cent at half-year.

10 Ferry sinks in harbour.

11 Refugees flee renewed fighting.

12 Last of the refugees fly home.

13 West Country bears brunt of gales.

14 Gun victim undergoes emergency surgery.

15 New pressure group swings into action.

16 Coup leader broadcasts to nation.

17 Tenor hits back at critics.

Exercise 16 Primary and auxiliary verbs: contractions ORG 7.9

;

Write the abbreviated words in full.

Example: Darling, they're playing our tune. Answer: Darling, they are playing our tune.

1 There's no fool like an old fool.
2 I'm only here for the beer.
3 Don't call us,
4 we'll call you.
5 It's turned out nice again.
6 I'd no idea you cared.
7 Who'd have thought it?
8 I've arrived, and to prove it I'm here.

Exercise 17 Auxiliaries

Here are twelve remarks. Show your surprise by asking a short question (using be, have, do or a modal auxiliary) and then add a short statement, pointing out that you differ from the speaker.

Example: I watch a lot of TV DO YOU? I DON'T.

1 I don't watch the news very often, though. .........................
2 I can't understand that weatherman's accent. .....................
3 I missed the first programme in that new nature series. ....................
4 I'd forgotten it was on. ...............................................................

5 I've been watching the tennis ...........................
6 My brother's got tickets for the finals ..............................................
7 But he's not interested in who wins .....................................
8 T'm going to watch the finals on the box ...........................................
9 We don't have the telly on at breakfast time ............................
10 We'll probably give up television if the licence fee goes up again .............
1 1 I'd miss it terribly, of course. ....................................
12 We haven't got a hi-fi. ............................................ .


Exercise 18 do: auxiliary or main verb? [ORG 7.9.2.1]

.........

Do can be an auxiliary as in Do you swim? and a main verb as in What can we do? What are you doing?

Use do (as auxiliary or as main verb) to add negative comments or to ask questions - as indicated.

1 I enjoy my work.

But what exactly (you). DO YOU DO? [Here the first do is an auxiliary and the second is a main verb.]
2 I do research.
Oh, (you) .

3 I think hard work is good for you.

Well, I suppose it ....................... any harm.

4 But my parents disapprove of my work.

Oh surely, they ...................................

5 My brother stays in bed half the day.

................................... really?

6 He has a rather peculiar job, if you can call it a job.

Why? What ............................... ?

7 Well, at one time he worked in computers.

Oh, ..............................?

8 But he decided to give that up.
So what ............................. after that?

9 Various things. But now he plays his guitar in the streets.

I don't believe it. He ........................!
10 Awful, isn't it ?
Well I've got friends who...........................anything at all
11 Why don't they ?

Lazy, I suppose. They ................................. anything when they were at school either.

12 Maybe one day I'll join my brother - we could form a band.
Oh, no ............................ .You wouldn't like it

Exercise 19: infinitives [ORG 7.2.1.4]

Complete the following with a suitable infinitive. Remember some verbs need a to-infinitive and some need a bare infinitive.

1 I would GIVE UP my job if I had the chance.

2 I would like TO TRAVEL when I m older.
3 I would rather .................. than 4 ................................
5 I may ........................... , although I ought 6 ......................................
7 T had better ...................................
8 l daren't .........................
9 I needn't ..............................if I don't want to.
10 I don't think I'm likely ...................................
11 What am I .......................... if they ask me ?
12 I was about .................................. when the phone rang.


Exercise 20: used to [ORG 7.9.3.1]

The marginal modal used to , referring to a past habit, can only be followed by an infinitive
We used to live in London, but we don't now.
Do not confuse this with be/get used to (meaning be/get accustomed to), which is followed by an -ing form or a noun phrase:
Some people never get used to living in a big city. They can't get used to the crowds. They aren't used to them.
There is also a regular verb use ,which always needs an object:
Use a knife. Use this.


Complete the sentences 1-10 in a grammatical and sensible way by using the endings a-j. There may be several possible answers.

I At one time many British workers used to ................... (h) BE PAID IN CASH.

2 Now most of them have got used to .............................

3 This means most of the population are used to ................................... .
4 In recent years most of us have got used to ..............................
5 These are a newish invention.There used to .......................
6 Perhaps one day our children will have become so used to ...................................
7 that they will ask in amazement, 'Didn't you use to ...................................
8 And did you also use to ......................................
9 I shall reply - not quite truthfully - 'We never used to ...................................
10 Like everyone else I was used to .................................................
A real old-fashioned cashless society!

(a) living in a cashless society
(b) having their money paid into their banks
(c) using credit cards
(d) bartering goods for other goods
(e) paying for things by cheque
(f) pay for things by cheque
(g) carry money around - coins and things
(h) be paid in cash at the end of the week
(i) be no such thing
(j ) use money


Exercise 21: Verb phrases [ORG 11.1]

A verb phrase may consist of a single word (write) or several verb forms (had heen writing). A verb phrase may be finite and refer to time (writes, wrote) or non-finite.
He doesn't have time to write.
Writing
isn't easy.

Identify the finite verb phrases in the following. Take each phrase as whole - do not classify each word separately. Then find at least five non-finite verb phrases.


Example: might seem (finite); to plan (non-finite)

It might seem odd in the twentieth century to plan and carry out expeditions as a means of making a living, yet I'd been doing just that for the past two years. I hadn't consciously chosen such a life; it had just worked out that way.


In 1943, four months before I was born, my father died of wounds received not far north of Monte Cassino whilst commanding a tank regiment, the Royal Scots Greys. When I was sixteen, I decided to make the army my career too. I'd inherited my father's title but not his brains, so the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst was out. However I managed to scrape through . . . Cadet School and into the Greys on a three-year short service commission, which I spent ploughing about Germany in tanks, canoeing along European rivers ... and skiing in Bavaria. All this gave me a taste for travel. (Ranulph Fiennes: To the Ends of the Earth)


Exercise 22: Subjunctive [SGE 11.9-10]

The so-called mandative subjunctive is used in that-clauses after expressions (which may be verbs, nouns or adjectives) of ordering, recommending, intending. This subjunctive takes the base form of the verb - with no -s form, and no changes for past tense:


They suggested
The suggestion was that he leave immediately.
It was essential

Notice the negative subjunctive:


They ordered that he not leave.

A common alternative is a verb phrase with should.

Rewrite the following, using the subjunctive where appropriate. Make any other changes necessary:


Example: The governor directed that all prisoners be closely supervised ...

The governor directed that all prisoners should be closely supervised at all times. He ordered that all prison officers should strictly observe the regulations. He insisted that they should not let any visitors smuggle in weapons or drugs. It was vital, he said, that all visitors should be searched.


The prison officers stated that this has always been done. But the fact is that three prisoners escaped on Saturday.


The new regulations state that it is essential that all sections of the prison should be searched more frequently and more thoroughly. They also recommended that extra staff are recruited so that no matter how skilful the prisoners are, they will not be able to escape. As if it was only a simple question of staffing!



Exercise 23: Passive voice [ORG 2.12]

Most transitive verbs can be active and passive. The passive voice is used for various reasons. When it is used without mentioning the agent (the subject of the active verb) this may be because the agent is unknown or unimportant, or because the agent wants to avoid responsibility; or it may be to emphasize the action of the verb by having that near the end of the sentence.


When the agent is mentioned with a by-phrase after the verb, this puts the agent in the important position at the end.


Complete the following with suitable passives of the following verbs:
advertise - affect - allow - build - give - hear - hold - inform(2)
inspect - keep - notify - obtain - place - send - tell


In certain circumstances apublic inquiry may (1) BE HELD into proposals put forward by the Department of the Environment or a local highway authority before a new road (2) ................ When the Secretary of State for the Environment originates road proposals they (3 publicly) ........................ and there is opportunity to raise objections, which may lead to such an inquiry. The Inspector in charge of the inquiry will hear views of objectors and others so that Ministers may (4) ........................ by the Inspector of all material facts. The Inspector (5) ...................... all the relevant correspondence from objectors to the proposals and from other......................... interested parties, so that he will (6 fully) ...................................... when conducting the inquiry.
A copy of the rules governing such inquiries can (7) .............................. from Her Majesty's Stationery Office. The rules entitle people who (8 directly) .......................... by the proposals to take part.
A public announcement (9) ........................ in local newspapers not later than 14 days before the inquiry. People who have objected to the road proposals (10)........................ individually, at least six weeks before the date of the inquiry. They will either (11) ...................... the Department's Statement of Reasons, or (12) ...................................where such a statement can (13) ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, .
The proceedings (14) ..............................................as informal as possible, but the Inspector must keep order. Each person will ( 15) ....................................to put his case in his own way. After all the interested parties ( 16) .............................. , the Department's representative makes his closing remarks.

Exercise 24: Agents [ORG 3.9.1]

Here are some of the 'agents' who play a part in public inquiries about roads:

(a) people living near the proposed new road
(b) the Department of the Environment or local highway authorities
(c) lawyers
(d) the Secretary of State for the Environment himself
(e) an Inspector appointed by the Department of the Environment

Write out full answers to the following questions, using a passive tense and an agent.

1 Who builds new roads in Britain ?

They ARE BUILT BY (b) THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT OR LOCAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITIES.
2 What sort of people raise objections?

Objections ........................................................................
3 Who conducts the day to day business of an Inquiry?
It ...............................................................
4 Does anyone represent the objectors?
They can .................................................................................
5 Who makes the final decision?
The final decision ........................................................................

Exercise 25: Active or passive? [ORG 2.12]

Complete the following in a suitable active or passive tense using the verbs given:

Asoldier(1 shoot) WAS SHOT and critically wounded es he (2 sit) ......................... in his car outside an army careers office in north London yesterday. Two men who (3 believe) ................... ... . ...... to be members of a terrorist organization, (4 approach) ........................ his car on a motorcycle just after 1 pm. The pillion passenger (5 run) ........................ towards the car, which (6 park) ........................ outside the office. He (7 shoot) soldier three times, then (8 run) .............................. back to the motorcycle and (9 flee) .........................................in the rush-hour traffic. The victim, a 28-year-old married man, (10 hit) .....................................in the chest. He (11 say) ........................ to be in a critical but stable condition in hospital.

Anti-terrorist detectives later (12 cordon) ......................................... off the are. This attack (13 plan well) ............................... and it is likely that the office (14 target) ............................ ........................ for some time.'

A motorcycle later (15 find) ..................................... abandoned about ten miles away, but it (16 not know) ................................. yet whether this was the getaway machine.