Standard English Kurt Vonnegut: Standard English - the variety of Englich nobody speaks" Michael Stubbs: "Standard English can be defined only by reference to its role in the education system." Confusion about standard correctness proper language good language grammatical language academic language Standard English power and control passing exams getting on in the world respectability prestige success used to exclude some from certain roles and professions Standardization spelling of words correctness proper language good language grammatical language academic language Standard English power and control passing exams getting on in the world respectability prestige success used to exclude some from certain roles and professions Standardization spelling and fixation of meanings of words in dictionaries Good Usage local prejudice (outdated) norms of educated usage notions of written, even literary usage Who standardizes? dictionary makers secretaries proof reader editors school teachers (women from lower middle class (Stubbs)) Standard English: a social dialect standard non-standard written spoken formal casual public private planned spontaneous non-interactive participatory partner not co-present face-to-face What does this mean for a foreign leaner? RP (Received Pronunciation) refers to socially prestigious accent all users of RP automatically speak Standard English but: only some speakers of StE use RP Network English, BBC English small elite in control of the public media prestige dialect Common Core