Future time

There is no inflected future tense in English, but there are several ways of talking about the future.

Future time: present progressive or will?

The present progressive is often used for future events arising from present plans or arrangements - We are meeting tomorrow. The 'will future' is sometimes neutral - I will be 21 next birthday, but also has meanings of prediction, intention, willingness [4.27]

Complete the following using either the present progressive or the 'will future'

Celia: I hear you (1 go) ARE GOING on holiday soon.

Helen: Yes, we (2 go) to Italy. A package tour actually.
Celia: Oh, you (3 love) Italy. When (4 you leave)

......................... .

Well, we (5 fly) ...............

Celia: That (6 be)
Helen: Yes, it should be. We (7 go) .

Celia: (8 you not get) tired sitting in a coach all day ?

.......... to Rome on the 15th.

...... nice.

............ on a coach tour actually.

Helen: Well, it certainly (9 be) tiring, I suppose. But we (10

visit) Siena, Florence, Assisi and Rome.
Celia: You (11 get) cultural indigestion but it sounds

marvellous. How long (12 you stay) in Assisi?
Helen: Unfortunately we (13 only have) a quick stop there.
Maybe we (14 actually stay) there another year.
Celia: It sounds a good tour. But you (15 come) home

Helen: NO, we (16 not) We (17 have) a

second week in SorTento, and we ( 18 just relax) by the sea.

going to or will

The 'going to' future usually means the future as a result of present intentions - We're going to be married. or the future as a result of an existing, present cause - It's going to rain. I think I'm going to be sick.

Complete the following with going to [do] or will.

1 I hear you ARE GOING TO go on a coach tour. I thought you didn't like road

Well if I take travel sickness pills I be all right.
2 What's all that gear for?

Well, I try.

3 My suitcase has broken.

....... you take up snorkelling?

Don't worTy. I Iend you mine.

4 Have you got traveller's cheques?

Heavens, I'd forgotten. I phone the bank tomorrow.

5 I've bought a phrase book, because I try to speak Italian.

6 When you're in Rome, you do something for me?

7 Why have you bought so many films?

I take lots of pictures of everything.

8 We're a bit worried about leaving the house empty.

We keep an eye on it if you like.

9 you send me a postcard from Sorrento, please?

Things are hotting up!

Choose the best tense forms to express the future in the following.

Scientists say that the level of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere is increasing at an alarming rate, and they forecast that it (1) (a) continues (b) is continuing (c) WILL CONTINUE to rise while we (2) (a) continue (b) will continue (c) will be continuing to burn fossil fuels. They believe that this build-up of carbon dioxide (3) (a) causes (b) is causing (c) will cause a marked rise in the earth's temperature in the twenty-first century. If they (4) (a) are (b) are being (c) are going to be proved right, we (5) (a) see (b) are seeing (c) will be seeing

unprecedented climatic change in the next century. Because when the earth's temperature (6) (a) rises (b) will rise (c) will have risen ice caps will melt and seas will rise. And as the seas (7) (a) rise (b) will rise (c) are going to rise, there will be widespread flooding.

A report some years ago suggested that in the third quarter of the next century, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (8) (a) is doubling (b) will have doubled (c) will have been doubling. If this massive build-up of carbon dioxide (9) (a) occurs (b) is occurring (c) will have occurred the average earth temperature will increase by several degrees and while this (10) (a) is happening (b) has happened (c) has been happening, the sea level ( 11 ) (a) rises (b) is rising (c) will be rising by as much as a metre.

Another report claims that these serious climatic changes ( 12) (a) actually begin (b) are actually beginning (c) will actually begin rather sooner. It says as the changes (13) (a) take (b) have taken (c) will take effect, some northern areas - New York for example - could become semi-tropical. This report also says that the growing season (14) (a) becomes (b) will become (c) has become longer in some areas, but that in the south drier conditions (15) (a) decrease (b) are decreasing (c) will decrease crop yields.

Nothing that we (16) (a) do (b) are doing (c) will do in the next few decades will make much difference, it seems, unless we (17) (a) stop (b) are stopping (c) will be stopping burning fossil fuels. I only hope the scientists ( 18) (a) manage (b) are managing (c) will be managing to come up with a solution. If they (19) (a) don't (b) won't (c) haven't, then there are global problems ahead. Perhaps we'll only realize the extent of the problem when we (20) (a) leave (b) are leaving (c) have left it too late.