Exercise 82 Disjuncts - and other adverbs

Disjuncts are a special type of adverb that have a sort of superior role to the rest of the sentence. There are two main kinds: either they indicate how the speaker is speaking -frankly, personally - or they comment on the content - perhaps, certainly,foolishly, quite rightly. Again, many of these words can also function as other sorts of adverbs, so position is important to indicate meaning.

Add the adverbs shown, in the best places to give the meanings indicated.

1 understandably: She was very upset. (I can understand that).



2 frankly: It isn't easy for some people to talk to their friends and families about their problems. (They find it difficult to discuss their feelings.)

3 frankly: I don't know why I sit here drinking with you. (If I say what I think, that's how I feel.)

4 truthfully: He had tried to write a letter that described what it was like here. (He wanted the description to be fair and accurate.)

5 truthfully: It was fairly obvious that he didn't want me any more: and I didn't want him any more either. (I am telling the truth when I say I didn't want him.)

6 honestly: I'll go if you like. I don't mind. (It is really true that I don't mind.)

7 honestly: Dealing with feelings, on the other hand, can help bring the family closer together. (The discussions need to be honest.)

8 generally: Scarcely three centuries have elapsed since it has been accepted that, indeed, the Earth does move. (Before that only a few people took this view.)

9 generally: The poor have been in favour of greater equality. (Well, they usually have!)

10 generally: They felt they had to watch the film before it was shown. (Before it was shown to the public.)

11 generally speaking: A simple answer to the question would be that we do dream in colour. (On the whole we do!)

12 literally: All I had to do was take it out of the box. (I am speaking literally when I say this.)

13 literal/y: We were really poor so that often by Wednesday we didn't have anything to eat. (I mean that - I am not exaggerating.)

14 literally: These two chemicals when mixed together explode. (That is a scientific fact.)

15 literally: She was so excited her eyes danced. (Well not literally really - I am using the word for emphasis.)

16 personally: He wants to see you. I'll tell him you're here. (He wants to see you himself.)

17 personally: That girl was murdered. No, I didn't know her. I knew who she was. Didn't I tell you that? (I'd never actually met her myself.)

18 personally: I think oysters are overrated. (Speaking for myself...)

Focus: Adverb

Ergänzen Sie die nachstehenden Sätze mit Adverbialkonstruktionen, die jeweils das direkte Ziel der Frage oder der Verneinung in den Satzen sein könnte (focus of question or negation; das unmittelbar Erfragte oder Verneinte).

absolutely - actually - at once - coolly - early - evasively - eventually

fluently - frankly - gradually - haltingly - hard - hardly - in any case

in the drawing-room - in the morning - in the evening - late - nearly - nervously - of course

publicly - quickly - rightly - warmly - well - with difficulty - without strain

1 Did Forster arrive at Nassenheide a or b ?

2 He arrived a , and not b when he was expected.

3 Did Herr Steinweg receive him a or b ?

4 Did Ilsa speak English aor did she speak it b

5 Did Forster come to like her a or was it b ?

6 He did not make her work a , but allowed her to work b

7 Did she make progress a or did progress come b ?

8 She was not accustomed to meeting young men a , but she sometimes met them b

9 He could not talk with her a- , but had to express himself b
10 Did Forster get on a with his hosts, or did relations with them
devel_P b


Adjunct, Disjunct or Conjunct?

Distinguishing adjuncts from disjuncts and conjunts
I Forster knocked at the door. (Nervously)
2 He did not know their names. (Naturally)
3 He got on well with his hosts. (In no time)
4 He found his host's daughter very shy. (However)
5 Ilsa could not speak English. (Fluently)
6 He could not talk with her. (Frankly)
7 He came to like her. (Gradually)
8 She was not accustomed to meeting young men. (Obviously)
9 He did not make her work. (Very hard)
10 She did not make much progress. (As a result)