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Sentence types and discourse functions

Questions

There are three main types of questions:

1 yes-no questions that can be answered with a straight yes or no: Are you ready? Haven't you got enough money?

2 wh-questions, beginnning with what, where, etc. or how.

3 altemative questions - where the questioner suggests alternatives:Will you have tea or coffee?

Negative yes-no questions [ORG 2.5.1]

You are rather cross and surprised at the way a friend has behaved. Criticize him and make suggestions, using negative yes-no questions.

Example: (You think) he ought to apologize. You say to him: Oughtn't you to apologize?

You think:

1 Surely he got my message.

2 He never considers other people.

3 Surely some of this worries him.

4 He isn't going to say he's sorry!

5 It seems he has no feelings.

6 He could have let me know. Surely his parents will be worried.

7 Surely his parents will be worried.

8 I would have thought you'd be able to see how they feel.

9 It might be better to go and see them.

10 He should try and explain.

11 It would be a good idea for him to tell his father.

12 Perhaps you (both) can forget this now.

Tag questions [ORG 2.6]

Complete the following with a suitable tag question.

Example: Please send us a postcard, ........................
Answer:
Please send us a postcard, won't you?

1 You'd better lock the car, .......................
2 And do remember to shut the windows, ....................
3 And you'd better not leave the radio in the car, ......................
4 You wouldn't want it stolen, ......................
5 And don't forget to put on the brakes, ...............
6 Oh, stop treating me like an idiot, ....................
7 I'm just checking everything, ......................
8 Come on, let's go,............ ?
9 And let's not quarrel, ...................?
10 There's nothing more to be said, ........................

Wh-questions [ORG 2.5.2

You want to know more about sport. Use a wh-word (including how) and the words given to ask questions as indicated. The answers to the questions are given in brackets.

Example: first Olympic Games/held. (At Olympia in ancient Greece).

You ask: WHEN WERE THE FIRST OLYMPIC GAMES HELD?

1 first Olympic Games/modern times/inaugurated. (on 6 April 1896)

2 other events besides running/constitute athletics. (relays, walking, field event and multiple events like the decathlon)

3 field events/include. (the high jump, the long jump, discus throwing - thing like that)

4 the word decathlon/mean. (a contest in which each competitor takes part in 10 events)

5 often/Olympic Games/now held. (every four years)

6 country/host/1988 Olympic Games. (South Korea)

7 become/youngest ever player to win/men's singles championship/Wimbledon
(Boris Becker - in 1985)

8 old/the time. (He was 17 years, 227 days)

9 people/manage/finish the London Marathon/1990. (nearly 25,000)

10 older - cricket or football. (possibly football - there are conflicting claims)

11 motor racing win at Asheville, North Carolina, USA/1988/set record (Straw Robinson's)

12 this achievement/special. (because she was the first woman to win this sort of event)

Wh-questions ending with a preposition

Practise asking win-questions that end with a preposition.

Example: I don't know what you mean; on earth are you talking

You say: WHAT ON EARTH ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT?

1 I can't afford a bicycle. ............... can I borrow one ............... ?

2 I can't talk about this to my father, so ............... can I discuss it ............... ?

3 UN means the United Nations, I know, but ...............do the letters WHO stand ...............

4 I don't understand what you're trying to say;............... are you getting ............... ?

5 Something is making you unhappy. ............... are you worrying ............... ?

6 Everything is going wrong; ............... have I got to look forward ............... ?

7 I met someone yesterday - someone you know! ............... do you think I
bumped ...............?

think he takes ............... ?

9 I've got far too many jumpers. ...............shall I get rid ............... ?

10 You look as though you're expecting someone. ............... are you waiting ...............


Exclamations [)RG 2.8]

You are in an exclamatory mood! So turn your thoughts into exclamations, using How or What. Where possible also make an exclamatory remark in the form of a negative question.

Example: (You think) This restaurant is unusual.
You say:
WHAT AN UNUSUAL restaurant!
or ISN'T THIS RESTAURANT unusual?

1 You think: The food is delicious.
You say: .................................. food!
. .................................. delicious?

2 But the service is slow.

.............................. service!
.............................. slow?

3 The waiters are good-looking.

.............................. waiters!
.............................. good-looking?

4 (Your friend) eats quickly.

.............................. eat!
.............................. quickly?

5 The vegetables are expensive.

.................... .. vegetables!
........................... expensive?

6 They charge a lot.

........ .................................. . charge!
...... .................................. ... a lot?

7 Everything is very fresh.

.............................. is!
.............................. fresh?

8 I just love food.
..................................
9 I really dislike dieting.

..............................

10 I wish I could come here more often.
..................................


Irregular sentences; block language

Explain the following newspaper headings by turning them into regular sentences.
(There are several possible answers.)
Example: Birthday Party Murder
Answer: There was a murder at a birthday party. (i.e. Someone was murdered at
a birthday party.)
1 Gangland Feud Fear By Police

2 Air Bomb Hoaxer Jailed For 30 Years

3 Surprise Pay Award For Colony Police

4 Bank loan man's 'secret plan'

5 Six die in crash

6 Cash Machine Ripped from Wall

7 Heathrow to have 5th Terminal

8 Six In Court After City Street Battle

9 Body Washed Up

10 Clothes Swap Inmate Flees

11Train stabbing

12 Missing Couple Safe

13 30 on top of world in day

14 High-tech spy guards bridge

15 No N-weapons On Navy Ships


Exlamations, Fixed Expressions, Block Language

Incomplete Sentences, Block Language

Newspaper headlines.
Indicate the clause constituents and complete:

1 HOLIDAY PRICE WAR STARTS
2 HUGHES TAKES SUNDERLAND INTO SIXTH ROUND
3 DRIVER ENTERED FOG AT 100 MPH
4 FARMER IN VAN RAMS SUSPECT PLANE
5 IMMIGRATION RULES CRITICIZED
6 OIL POLLUTION MEASURES TO BE TESTED
7 EXTRA PARKS FOR VEHICLES
8 MOON DUST VANISHES
9 AIRPORT NOISE DROVE HUSBAND MAD
10 SCOTLAND CHAMPIONS AGAIN


Paraphrase the following constructions so that their meaning becomes as clear as possible:

1 What beautiful weather we are having!
2 How have I waited for this moment!
3 What about having some dinner with me?
4 Far be it from me to tempt you against your will.
5 In for a penny, in for a pound.
6 Waste not, want not.
7 Now for the crucial question.
8 The sooner the better.
9 What to see in Paris.
10 Road works ahead.