A general framework
Read the passage and then choose the odd form out in each set listed below.
I sat down on a stone. I was exhausted. My ankle was aching and leg muscles that I never knew existed were beginning to complain. The sun was casting long shadows and the silence worried me. There was no sign of the path, and no other trail looked at all convincing. I could not see a single house, there were no familiar landmarks, and the Indus was only a glinting trickle far below. I felt tired, miserable and slightly frightened. I sat for ten minutes without moving, unsure of what to do. All options seemed equally unappealing. Then, immediately above me, I heard gunshots. On other occasions the noise might have been sinister. Now they seemed welcoming, almost homely. I clambered upwards, and soon found a track. Following it around a bluff of rock I saw the source of the shots: a village of half-timbered huts clinging to the sheer hillside. (William Dalrymple: In Xanadu A Quest)
When we talk of phrases we are talking of FORMAL categories - the way phrases are formed. When we talk of sentence elements (subjects, verbs, objects, complements and adverbials) we are thinking of the way different kinds of formal phrases FUNCTION, how the same kind of phrase can express different elements.
The verb element in a sentence must be a verb phrase, but this does not apply to other forms and functions. For example (in the passage in Exercise 3):
Constituent parts of a sentence
Zerlegen Sie die nachfolgenden Sätze in ihre Konstituenten (Satzglieder) und benennen Sie die entsprechenden Konstituenten mit den Symbolen S, V, , C, P, O oder A
1 Full-scale computers have a large number of programs.
2 We must change all the programs tomorrow.
3 Tomorrow will be a holiday here.
4 These bookshelves are becoming very popular in Sweden.
5 We have recently added an extra unit to them.
6 Will you give it a try?
7 On July 7, DDT was sprayed on the marsh from a helicopter.
8 We all read too many books too quickly.
9 The young man grew restless in his mother-in-law's house.
10 They had made him their son-in-law despite his objections.
11 He found his mother-in-law greedy.
12 They had found him a charming young wife.
Exercise: Clause structure [ORG ch. 3]
There are basically seven types of clause - combining the elements of S(ubject), V(erb), O(bject), P(redicative) and A(dverbial) in various ways. ~; .
Identify the sentence types that the following sentences belong to as SV, SVO, SVP, SVA, SVOO, SVOP or SVOA.
1 I felt very tired. SVP [I = S; felt = V; very tired = P]
2 My feet hurt.
3 The receptionist handed me my key.
4 I wanted food.
5 I placed my coat over a chair.
6 I ordered myself something to eat.
7 It seemed sensible.
8 I lay on the bed.
9 A waiter brought coffee and sandwiches.
10 He set the tray on a table.
11 I was yawning.
12 I found the bed rather hard.
13 The thick curtains extended to the floor.
14 But the hotel was situated on a busy street.
15 The traffic noise kept me awake.