obligation must ought to should
necessity must ought to need
possibility may (can) might (could) can
probability may would
permission may can (might)
intention shall will
willigness shall emph. do will would
insistence shall will would
prediction wil shall
Subjunctive or Indicative?
a) mandative subjunctive: request, proposition, commission b) formulaic subjunctive: formulas c) hypothetical subjunctive (were) d) Irrealis: modal past e) indicative
1 I suggest that you were feeling over-tired. 2 We suggest that this applicant apply next year. 3 If I were feeling over-tired, I wouldn‘t go on. 4 I would much rather we stayed at home this evening. 5 We were hoping you could come and have lunch with us tomorrow. 6 The committee recommends that the annual subscription be increased to £ 3. 7 It is highly desirable that every effort be made to reduce expenditure and that every member of the staff economize wherever possible. 8 Be that as it may, our expenditure is bound to increase. 9 By the time we stopped, we had driven six hundred miles. 10 Is it not time we set our own house in order?
Replace by modal auxiliary + lexical verb:
1 John is capable of typing very fast. 2 I know how to answer this question now. 3 I was never able to understand a word he said. 4 No one was able to solve the problem. 5 It is just possible that what you say is true. 6 I suggest I open the window. 7 If you are willing to come with us, we shall be delighted. 8 Would you like to have a seat? 9 Someone keeps putting his coat on my peg. 10 Gradfather has got into the habit of sitting looking at this view all day long. 11 I had a habit of hitting the wrong key of the typewriter. 12 Gradfather had got into the habit of sitting in that chair for hours. 13 I advise you to read this book. 14 It is obligatory for us to read it. 15 You are prohibited from smoking here. 16 Are you able to do this without help? 17 Is it advisable for us to wait? 18 It is not compulsory for us to attend. 19 That, presumambly, is the house we‘re looking for. 20 Yes, I‘m quite sure it is the one.
Viewpoint adjunct of disjunct?
Both, if adverbs,often have -ly ending. Both, if adverbs, mostly are in initial position.
Frankly (speaking), he hasn‘t a chance. Economically speaking, many of these people have suffered because of their political affiliation.
Difference apparent in paraphrase:
Style disjunct implies a verb of speaking in which the subject is the I of the speaker: If I may be frank, if I can speak frankly, .... but not: If I can speak economically, ....
Viewpoint adjunct: what is said is considered from a certain point of view: From an economic point of view, .... But not: From frank point of view, he hasn‘t a chance.
Phrasal verbs, prepositional verbs, phrasal-prepositional verbs
Analyze structure of VP as
a verb + particle (= phrasal verb) sat down
b verb + prepositional phrase ran across the road
c verb + particle + PP (=phrasalV + PP) set off on a journey
d verb + prepositional adverb ran across
e verb + prepositional adverb + PP go across to the baker‘s
f transitive V + particle + O (= trans PhrV) find out the truth
g V + Prep + O (=prepositional verb) looked at me
h V + Particle + Preposition + O (=phrasal-prepositional verb) put up with him Classify examples:
1 I went into the dining room. 2 We went into the matter carefully. 3 We must call in the police. 4 The police will call in a car. 5 I rushed out of the house. 6 I rushed out. 7 I drove out to my friends. 8 They all trooped off. 9 They all set off down the road. 10 He flew across the Atlantic. 11 We flew across in no time. 12 How long can one do without water? 13 Has anyone rung up? 14 Has anyone rung me up? 15 Don‘t come down. 16 Don‘t give up. 17 Don‘t give me away. 18 You must face up to your responsibilities. 19 You must come up to my office. 20 We must make up for lost time. 21 Will you come up for a cup of tea? 22 The train has passed over the bridge. 23 It has passed over safely. 24 The selection committee has passed you over. 25 My hat has fallen off. 26 The plane has taken off. 27 The actor took the President off beautifully. 28 Go onto the platform. 29 Go on to the next town. 30 You must cut down on cigarettes.
Replace the objects by pro-forms:
1 Back up the hill. 2 Back up your friends. 3 Call off the game. 4 Come off my bed. 5 Get over the wall. 6 Get this meeting over. 7 Swim across the river. 8 Put across this message. 9 Run in the race. 10 Run in the engine. 11 Step up this ladder 12 Step up pöroduction. 13 You take after your father. 14 You took to John at once. 15 You can take over my job. 16 Don‘t turn on the lights. 17 The dog turned on the stranger. 18 Turn down this street. 19 Turn down his proposal. 20 Now wind up your watch.
Place the adverb correctly!
1 They looked at the picture carefully 2 They turned on the gas slowly 3 They turned the gas on slowly 4 He‘s catching up with the leaders quickly 5 Go on to the end right 6 The negotiations have broken down completely 7 the crowd made for better shelter hurriedly 8 The Spartans brought their children up strictly 9 I‘ll look into your complaint immediately 10 He puts up with any inconveniences patiently
Move the particle / preposition / adverb if possible
1 The Spartans brought up their children strictly. 2 Lester gradually caught up with the leaders. 3 I don‘t want to break up the party. 4 The meeting broke up in disorder. 5 We must hurry to make up for lost time. 6 Please send this telegram off urgently. 7 Please get that parcel off at once. 8 Why don‘t you take off your coat? 9 We must find out the answers somehow. 10 Be careful. Don‘t run over that child.